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Depending on the presence or absence of these phenomena, the existing ways of reproduction can be divided into asexual, hermaphrodite and dioecious forms.
The sexual process and sexual differentiation are different phenomena, and, in essence, are diametrically opposed.
Thus, in this formulation, the principal costs of sex is that males and females must successfully copulate (which almost always involves expending energy to come together through time and space).
Sexually reproducing organism only pass on ~50% of its own genetic material to each L2 offspring.
This stands in contrast to single-parent asexual replication, where the offspring is identical to the parents.
Recombination supplies two fault-tolerance mechanisms at the molecular level: recombinational DNA repair (promoted during meiosis because homologous chromosomes pair at that time) and complementation (also known as heterosis, hybrid vigor or masking of mutations). Michod - have suggested several explanations for how a vast array of different living species maintain sexual reproduction.
This is a consequence of the fact that gametes from sexually reproducing species are haploid.
August Weismann picked up the thread in 1889, arguing that sex served to generate genetic variation, as detailed in the majority of the explanations below. Given that sexual reproduction abounds in multicellular organisms, this section is followed by a lengthy overview of theories aiming to elucidate the advantages of sex and sexual reproduction.
For the advantage due to genetic variation, there are three possible reasons this might happen.
First, sexual reproduction can combine the effects of two beneficial mutations in the same individual (i.e. Also, the necessary mutations do not have to have occurred one after another in a single line of descendants.
the benefits of two separate sexes compared to hermaphrodites rather than to explain benefits of sexual forms (hermaphrodite dioecious) over asexual ones.
It has already been understood that since sexual reproduction is not associated with any clear reproductive advantages, as compared with asexual, there should be some important advantages in evolution.