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Charlemagne's expansion of the Frankish empire around 800, including northern Italy and Rome, brought on a brief period of stability and unity in Francia.This created opportunities for Jewish merchants to settle again north of the Alps.The name of Gomer has often been linked to the ethnonym Cimmerians.Biblical Ashkenaz is usually derived from Assyrian Aškūza (cuneiform Aškuzai/Iškuzai), a people who expelled the Cimmerians from the Armenian area of the Upper Euphrates, In the Yoma tractate of the Babylonian Talmud the name Gomer is rendered as Germania, which elsewhere in rabbinical literature was identified with Germanikia in northwestern Syria, but later became associated with Germania.It is estimated that in the 11th century Ashkenazi Jews composed only three percent of the world's total Jewish population, while an estimate made in 1930 (near the population's peak) had them as 92 percent of the world's Jews.Genetic studies on Ashkenazim—researching both their paternal and maternal lineages—suggest a predominant amount of shared Middle Eastern ancestry, complimented by varying percentages of European admixture.

The eminent French Rishon Rabbi Shlomo Itzhaki (Rashi) would have a significant impact on the Jewish religion.Many Jews were denied full Roman citizenship until Emperor Caracalla granted all free peoples this privilege in 212.Jews were required to pay a poll tax until the reign of Emperor Julian in 363.Charlemagne granted the Jews freedoms similar to those once enjoyed under the Roman Empire.In addition, Jews from southern Italy, fleeing religious persecution, began to move into central Europe.

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